Many nursing students struggle with dose calculation, as they are expected to answer all questions correctly, with a limited number of errors. However, it is crucial to remember that every math problem answered is a medication that will be administered to a patient. Thus, even one incorrect answer equals one medication error, which can have serious consequences

Medication errors are a significant problem in the United States, with a hospital patient being exposed to at least one medication error per day, leading to over 7,000 deaths per year. The most common reported errors are incorrect dosage and infusion rate. Registered nurses (RNs) are often the ones who identify and prevent these errors before they reach the patient.

Therefore, it is essential for nurses to master dose calculation to prevent dispensing errors. The ratio and proportion method is a simple and effective approach to calculating medication doses. This method involves putting what is known on one side of the formula and what is being determined on the other. Then, multiply the extremes by extremes and means by means, and finally, divide both sides by the same number to solve for the answer.

Practice is key to mastering this method. Work on practice problems using the ratio and proportion method and compare your answers to the solutions provided in the references. Remember, even if you can do the calculations in your head, writing it down using the formula helps to solidify the steps for more complex problems.

With consistent practice and a thorough understanding of the ratio and proportion method, you can master nursing math and ensure the safety of your patients.

#### So now we have:

80 mg X = 40 mg tab

In order to isolate X on one side, we divide both sides of the equation by 80 mg. So now we have this:

(80 mg X = 40 mg tab)/(80 mg)

When we divide 80 mg X by 80 mg, we are left with 1X or X.

When we divide the 40 mg tab by 80 mg, we are left with 1/2 tab.

X = 1/2 tab

So the answer is 1/2 of an 80 mg tablet.

#### Primary Healthcare Provider Prescription:

Methylprednisolone sodium succinate 62.5 mg IVP now. Available: Methylprednisolone sodium succinate 125 mg/2 mL.

62.5 mg : 1 mL :: 125 mg : X mL

62.5 mg x X mL = 125 mg x 1 mL

When we multiply this out we have:

62.5 mg X = 125 mg

In order to isolate X on one side, we divide both sides of the equation by 62.5 mg. So now we have this:

(62.5 mg X = 125 mg)/(62.5 mg)

When we divide 62.5 mg X by 62.5 mg, we are left with 1X or X.

When we divide 125 mg by 62.5 mg, we are left with 2 mL.

X = 2 mL

So the answer is 2 mL of the 125 mg/2 mL solution.

#### Primary Healthcare Provider Prescription:

Potassium chloride 40 mg by mouth twice a day. Available: Potassium chloride 10 mg per 1 mL.

40 mg : 1 mL :: 10 mg : X mL

40 mg x X mL = 10 mg x 1 mL

When we multiply this out we have:

40 mg X = 10 mg

In order to isolate X on one side, we divide both sides of the equation by 40 mg. So now we have this:

(40 mg X = 10 mg)/(40 mg)

When we divide 40 mg X by 40 mg, we are left with 1X or X.

When we divide 10 mg by 40 mg, we are left with 1/4 mL.

X = 1/4 mL

So the answer is 1/4 mL of the 10 mg/1 mL solution.

#### Primary Healthcare Provider Prescription:

Furosemide 30 mg IVP now. Available: Furosemide 80 mg in 2 mL.

30 mg : 1 mL :: 80 mg : X mL

30 mg x X mL = 80 mg x 1 mL

When we multiply this out we have:

30 mg X = 80 mg

In order to isolate X on one side, we divide both sides of the equation by 30 mg. So now we have this:

(30 mg X = 80 mg)/(30 mg)

When we divide 30 mg X by 30 mg, we are left with 1X or X.

When we divide 80 mg by 30 mg, we are left with 2 2/3 mL.

X = 2 2/3 mL

So the answer is 2 2/3 mL of the 80 mg/2 mL solution.

#### Primary Healthcare Provider Prescription:

Phenytoin 0.2 grams per NG tube twice a day. Available: Phenytoin 40 mg / 5 mL

0.2 g : 1 mL :: 40 mg : X mL

0.2 g x X mL = 40 mg x 1 mL

In order to answer this question, we must convert grams to milligrams. To convert from grams to milligrams, we can use the conversion factor of 1000 milligrams in 1 gram. If we want to find the equivalent milligram amount of 0.2 grams, we can use the following proportion: 1 gram: 1000 milligrams = 0.2 grams: X milligrams. Solving for X, we find that 0.2 grams is equivalent to 200 milligrams.

To answer the main question, we can use the same method to find the equivalent milliliters of 200 milligrams in a ratio of 40 milligrams to 5 milliliters: 40 milligrams: 5 milliliters = 200 milligrams: X milliliters. Solving for X, we find that 200 milligrams is equivalent to 25 milliliters.

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